Diet and Nutrition
Urban Livestock Ownership, Management, and Regulation in the United States: An Exploratory Survey and Research AgendaSubmitted on Jan 20, 2014 (Original item from 2014) Diet and Nutrition | Farmed Animals | General Animal Protection
It is becoming increasingly common for individuals to have “urban livestock,” i.e., farmed animals such as chickens, rabbits, bees, and goats who are kept in a municipal setting. Using an online survey, this study examined the motivations and management practices of those who keep these animals and compared the findings with existing municipal regulations on “backyard chickens.” Topics investigated include: motivations for keeping farmed animals; the number and species kept; the proximity of the animals to dwellings and property lines; space allocations; intentions to use animals for meat; sanitation; the impact on neighbors; slaughter practices; and the desire to share, sell, or barter animal products.
Growing Meat in Laboratories: The Promise, Ontology, and Ethical Boundary-Work of Using Muscle Cells to Make FoodSubmitted on Jan 15, 2014 (Original item from 2013) Advocacy Strategies | Animal Experimentation | Diet and Nutrition | Farmed Animals | General Animal Protection | Vegetarianism and Veganism
This philosophical essay discusses the ethical framework in which scientists and animal advocates regard current research into, and the potential development of, in vitro meat (IVM) production. The author incorporates quotes from interviews with 39 individuals who were scientists involved in IVM-related research or advocates who have supported IVM technology. While most interviewees awarded some degree of preferability to IVM production over current factory farming practices, their motivations for being involved in this area varied. The author concludes that ethical boundary-work concerning IVM production is complex and under development, as is the IVM research itself.
Nutrient Intake in the GEICO Multicenter Trial: The Effects of a Multicomponent Worksite InterventionSubmitted on Jan 02, 2014 (Original item from 2013) Diet and Nutrition | General Animal Protection | Vegetarianism and Veganism
This study by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine assessed the effects of a vegan diet nutrition program in a corporate setting. Individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 GEICO locations across the U.S. Employees at five of the locations were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings for 18 weeks, while those at the other five locations continued their usual diets. The results showed that compared to individuals in the control group, intervention group participants reduced their reported intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, and increased their intake of a variety of protective nutrients (except for calcium).
This study used focus groups to explore consumer attitudes toward kosher products and beliefs regarding religious slaughter practices. The focus groups were conducted in Europe and Israel with Jewish adults who consumed kosher food at least once per week. Although it was considered an important religious obligation, participants exhibited a low level of commitment to eating kosher foods, citing low availability and high cost. Participants also believed that kosher slaughter was a more humane form of slaughter and suspected anti-Semitism as the motivation for attempts to impose stunning requirements.
This study calculates, for the first time, the human trophic level using data for 176 countries from the Food and Agricultural Organization from 1961 to 2009. The researchers used these levels, which are a measure of diet composition, to position humans in the context of the food web. Our trophic level showed that we are closer to herbivores than carnivores; however, this value has increased over time, which the researchers say is consistent with the global trend away from plant-based diets toward diets higher in meat and dairy. The study showed that this pattern is mainly driven by China and India where the human trophic levels are on the rise in conjunction with their increased preference for meat. The study also pointed to a strong link between socio-economic and environmental indicators and global dietary trends.
Communicating the Environmental Impact of Meat Production: Challenges in the Development of a Swedish Meat GuideSubmitted on Dec 05, 2013 (Original item from 2013) Advocacy Strategies | Diet and Nutrition | Farmed Animals | General Animal Protection
This article examines a consumer guide that was developed to assist Swedish consumers and food professionals to make less environmentally harmful meat choices. The guide rates meat products according to a red/yellow/green (traffic light) system and presents information on carbon footprints, biodiversity, use of pesticides, and animal welfare. The paper describes how the guide was designed, discusses the challenge of relaying complex environmental information to consumers in an understandable way, and highlights future areas for research.
This survey explored the British public’s attitudes towards meat consumption. The results showed that a quarter had reduced their meat intake in the past year. Slightly more than a third of respondents indicated they are willing to consider consuming less meat in the future. One in six young people in the survey said they currently eat no meat. Concern for animal protection was the top reason for considering a reduction in meat consumption, ranking ahead of cost, food quality/safety, health, environmental concerns, world hunger, and religion.
This report shows a decrease in the intake of fluid milk in the U.S. since the 1970s. The report attributes this to a drop in consumption frequency as opposed to changes in portion sizes. The longitudinal data (from five USDA dietary intake surveys) showed that those in the U.S. have become less likely to drink milk with their mid-day and night-time meals. It also revealed that (while controlling for demographic variables) succeeding generations born after the 1930s have consumed milk less often than their preceding generations. The USDA predicts that these generational patterns may result in a continuing decline in milk consumption.
Despite the environmental impacts of livestock farming, there is a worldwide trend of increasing meat consumption, and policy-makers are reluctant to address the issue. This study surveyed Dutch meat-eaters and found a large proportion were meat-reducers, those eating no meat at dinner at least one day per week. Different consumer groups can be distinguished on the basis of meat-consumption frequency, and the article discusses the importance of recognizing these groups when considering strategies for promoting more sustainable consumption practices.
This study explores consumer perceptions of various types of meat (beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and fish). Survey participants were asked about their average consumption (including products deemed to be natural/organic, grass-fed, or free-range/cage-free) as well as their thoughts on price, health, and animal welfare. Demographic trends were also analyzed. The results showed that the importance that consumers placed on animal welfare did not necessarily reflect their purchasing habits.
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